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Next, we will discuss several immunotherapies for the treatment of B-cell ALL that represent a new era of therapeutics. These include ADCs such as InO, the BiTE blinatumomab, and CAR T‑cell therapies.
InO, an ADC construct, binds to CD22 on the surface of B‑cell lymphoblasts followed by internalization and release of a toxic agent that kills the target tumor cells. Blinatumomab, a BiTE construct, can bind both CD19 on the surface of B‑cell lymphoblasts and CD3 on the surface of T-cells, bringing leukemia cells into proximity with the activated T-cells and causing immunologically mediated cytotoxicity. CAR T-cell therapy consists of genetically modified CD19‑targeted T‑cells that attack CD19‑expressing malignant lymphoid blasts.
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