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From previous studies, we know that it is cost-effective to conduct surveillance for HCC when the incidence is ≥1.5% per year in patients with cirrhosis, regardless of etiology. In patients with chronic HBV infection with cirrhosis, the annual HCC risk is 3% to 5% per year and, therefore, warrants surveillance. In noncirrhotic patients, the cost-effective threshold for surveillance has been suggested to be at an annual HCC incidence >0.2%. As shown here, Asian women older than 50 years of age and Asian men older than 40 years of age have annual HCC incidences >0.2%. The APASL recommends HCC surveillance in all patients with cirrhosis and in patients with HBV without cirrhosis if they are Asian women older than 50 years of age, Asian men older than 40 years of age, Africans older than 20 years of age, or persons with a positive family history of HCC.2