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See Me and Not Just the Disease! An In-Depth Clinical Focus on Racial Disparities in HCV Care Globally

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Ahmed M. Elsharkawy, PhD, FRCP(UK)
Released: December 1, 2021
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  1. World Health Organization. Interim guidance for country validation of viral hepatitis elimination. June 2021. who.int/publications/i/item/9789240028395. Accessed November 22, 2021.
  2. Kelly C, Pericleous M, Ahmed A, et al. Improving uptake of hepatitis B and hepatitis C testing in South Asian migrants in community and faith settings using educational interventions—a prospective descriptive study. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;100:264-272.
  3. Sweeney L, Owiti J, Beharry A, et al. Informing the design of a national screening and treatment programme for chronic viral hepatitis in primary care: qualitative study of at-risk immigrant communities and healthcare professionals. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015;15:97.
  4. Hofmeister MG, Rosenthal EM, Barker LK, et al. Estimating prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 2013-2016. Hepatology. 2019;69:1020-1031.
  5. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The 2020 annual homeless assessment report (AHAR) to Congress. huduser.gov/portal/sites/default/files/pdf/2020-AHAR-Part-1.pdf. Accessed November 22, 2021.
  6. Carson EA. Prisoners in 2016. bjs.ojp.gov/content/pub/pdf/p16_sum.pdf. Accessed November 22, 2021.
  7. UK Ministry of Justice. Her Majesty’s prison and probation service offender equalities annual report 2019 to 2020. assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/938345/hmpps-offender-equalities-2019-2020.pdf. Accessed November 22, 2021.
  8. Wong RJ, Jain MK, Therapondos G, et al. Race/ethnicity and insurance status disparities in access to direct acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus treatment. Am J Gastroenterol. 2018;113:1329-1338.
  9. Reilley B and Leston J. A Tale of Two Epidemics—HCV treatment among Native Americans and veterans. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:801-803.
  10. Trickey A, Fraser H, Lim AG, et al. The contribution of injection drug use to hepatitis C virus transmission globally, regionally, and at country level: a modelling study. Lancet Gastro Hep. 2019;4:435-444.
  11. Kandeel AM, Talaat M, Afifi SA, et al. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2012;12:294.
  12. Falla AM, Veldhuijzen IK, Ahmad AA, et al. Language support for linguistic minority chronic hepatitis B/C patients: an exploratory study of availability and clinicians’ perceptions of language barriers in six European countries. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17:150.
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Equity Considerations and Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html. Accessed November 22, 2021.
  14. Kanwal F, Kramer JR, Asch SM, et al. Long-term risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV Patients treated with direct acting antiviral agents. Hepatology. 2020;71:44-55.
  15. Wong A, Le A, Lee M-H, et al. Higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Hispanic patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis and metabolic risk factors. Sci Rep. 2018;8:7164.
  16. El-Serag HB, Kramer J, Duan Z, et al. Racial differences in the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV-infected veterans. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109:1427-1435.
  17. Project ECHO. About Project ECHO. hsc.unm.edu/echo/about-us/. Accessed November 22, 2021.
  18. Arora S, Thornton K, Murata G, et al. Outcomes of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection by primary care providers. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2199-2207.
  19. Uddin G, Shoeb D, Solaiman S, et al. Prevalence of chronic viral hepatitis in people of south Asian ethnicity living in England: the prevalence cannot necessarily be predicted from the prevalence in the country of origin. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17:327-335.
  20. Smout E, Williams J, Miners A, et al. Get Tested LeEDs: clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of opt-out emergency department testing for bloodborne viruses (BBVs). Presented at: 2021 European Association for the Study of the Liver International Liver Congress™; June 23-26, 2021. Abstract OS-199.
  21. Sulkowski M. Concordance of SVR 4-12-24 timepoints in an era of reduced sustained virologic response (SVR) determination. Presented at: 2021 European Association for the Study of the Liver International Liver Congress™; June 23-26, 2021. Abstract 983.
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