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Frequently Asked Questions on COVID-19 Epidemiology, Prevention, and Clinical Management

Arthur Kim, MD
Sharon R. Lewin, AO, FRACP, PhD, FAHMS
Renslow Sherer, MD
Released: June 1, 2022
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References

Aggarwal A, Ospina Stella A, Walker G, et al. SARS-CoV-2 omicron: evasion of potent humoral responses and resistance to clinical immunotherapeutics relative to viral variants of concern. medRxiv. 2021;[Preprint]. Note: This study has not been peer reviewed.

Ahmed A, Rojo P, Agwu A, et al. Remdesivir treatment for COVID-19 in hospitalized children: CARAVAN interim results. Presented at: 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 12-16, 2022. Abstract 744.

AstraZeneca. New Vaxzevria data further support its use as third dose booster. astrazeneca.com/media-centre/press-releases/2022/new-vaxzevria-data-further-support-its-use-as-third-dose-booster.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Atmar RL, Lyke KE, Deming ME, et al. Heterologous SARS-CoV-2 booster vaccinations - preliminary report. medRxiv. 2021;[Preprint]. Note: This study has not been peer reviewed.

Bernal AJ, Gomes da Silva MM, Musungaie DB, et al. Molnupiravir for oral treatment of COVID-19 in nonhospitalized patients. N Engl J Med. 2022;386:509-520.

Burki TK. Fourth dose of COVID-19 vaccines in Israel. Lancet Respir Med. 2022;10:e19.

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Cameroni E, Bowen JE, Rosen LE et al. Broadly neutralizing antibodies overcome SARS-CoV-2 Omicron antigenic shift. Nature. 2021;602:664-670.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/covid-net/purpose-methods.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 vaccine booster shots. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/booster-shot.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 vaccines for moderately to severely immunocompromised people. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/recommendations/immuno.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Different COVID-19 vaccines. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim clinical considerations for use of COVID-19 vaccines currently approved or authorized in the United States. cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/clinical-considerations/covid-19-vaccines-us.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Omicron variant: what you need to know. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/variants/omicron-variant.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. People with certain medical conditions. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Post-COVID conditions: information for healthcare providers. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-care/post-covid-conditions.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reinfections and COVID-19. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/your-health/reinfection.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The possibility of COVID-19 after vaccination: breakthrough infections. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/effectiveness/why-measure-effectiveness/breakthrough-cases.html. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Chuah CH, Chow TS, Hor CP, et al. Efficacy of early treatment with favipiravir on disease progression among high risk COVID-19 patients: a randomized, open-label clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;[Epub ahead of print].

COVID-OUT: outpatient treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection, a factorial randomized trial. covidout.umn.edu/. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Cox RM, Wolf JD, Lieber CM, et al. Oral prodrug of remdesivir parent GS-441524 is efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets. Nat Commun. 2021;12:6415.

Dougan M, Azizad M, Chen P, et al. Bebtelovimab, alone or together with bamlanivimab and etesevimab, as a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody treatment for mild to moderate, ambulatory COVID-19. medRxiv. 2022;[Preprint]. Note: this study has not been peer reviewed.

Elliott P, Eales O, Bodinier B, et al. Post-peak dynamics of a national omicron SARS-CoV-2 epidemic during January 2022. Spiral, Imperial College London. 2022;[Preprint]. Note: This study has not been peer reviewed.

Folegatti PM, Ewer KJ, Aley PK, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2020;396:467-478.

Gottlieb RL, Vaca CE, Paredas R, et al. Early remdesivir to prevent progression to severe COVID-19 in outpatients. N Engl J Med. 2022;386:305-315.

Hammond J, Leister-Tebbe H, Gardner A, et al. Oral nirmatrelvir for high-risk, nonhospitalized adults with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2022;386:1397-1408.

HHS Telehealth. Telehealth and COVID-19. telehealth.hhs.gov/patients/telehealth-and-covid/. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Infectious Diseases Society of America. IDSA guideline on the treatment and management of COVID-19: oral antiviral agents. idsociety.org/globalassets/idsa/practice-guidelines/covid-19/treatment/idsa-covid-19-gl-tx-and-mgmt---oral-antivirals-2021-12-24.pdf. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Kirsebom F, Andrews N, Sachdeva R, et al. Effectiveness of ChAdOx1-S COVID-19 booster vaccination against the omicron and delta variants in England. medRxiv. 2022;[Preprint]. Note: This study has not been peer reviewed. 

Mao T, Israelow B, Suberi A, et al. Unadjuvanted intranasal spike vaccine booster elicits robust protective mucosal immunity against sarbecoviruses. bioRxiv. 2022;[Preprint]. Note: This study has not been peer reviewed.

Moderna. Moderna announces clinical update on bivalent COVID-19 booster platform. investors.modernatx.com/news/news-details/2022/Moderna-Announces-Clinical-Update-on-Bivalent-COVID-19-Booster-Platform/default.aspx. Accessed May 31, 2022.

National Institutes of Health. Clinical Management Summary. covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/management/clinical-management/clinical-management-summary/. Accessed May 31, 2022.

National Institutes of Health. The COVID-19 treatment guidelines panel’s interim statement on patient prioritization for outpatient anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies or preventive strategies when there are logistical or supply constraints. covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/therapies/statement-on-patient-prioritization-for-outpatient-therapies/. Accessed May 31, 2022.

National Institutes of Health. Ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid). covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/therapies/antiviral-therapy/ritonavir-boosted-nirmatrelvir—paxlovid. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir [prescribing information]. New York, NY: Pfizer; 2022.

Pfizer. Pfizer and BioNTech initiate study to evaluate omicron-based COVID-19 vaccine in adults 18 to 55 years of age; 2022. pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-initiate-study-evaluate-omicron-based. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Pfizer. Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine demonstrates strong immune response, high efficacy and favorable safety in children 6 months to under 5 years of age following third dose. pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/Pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine-demonstrates-strong-immune. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Planas D, Saunders N, Maes P, et al. Considerable escape of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron to antibody neutralization. Nature. 2022;602:671-675.

Owen DR, Allerton CMN, Anderson AS, et al. An oral SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor clinical candidate for the treatment of COVID-19. Science. 2021;374:1586-1593.

Reis G, Silva EASM, Silva DCM, et al. Effect of early treatment with ivermectin among patients with COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2022;386:1721-1731.

Remdesivir [prescribing information]. Foster City, CA: Gilead Sciences; 2022.

Ritonavir [prescribing information]. Chicago, IL: AbbVie; 2020.

Schäfer A, Martinez DR, Won JJ, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of an oral nucleoside analog of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in mice. bioRxiv. 2021;2021.09.13.460111.

Schmidt C. COVID-19 long haulers. Nat Biotechnol. 2021;39:908-913.

Schultz DC, Johnson RM, Ayyanathan K, et al. Pyrimidine inhibitors synergize with nucleoside analogues to block SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2022;604:134-140.

Seeßle J, Waterboer T, Hippchen T, et al. Persistent symptoms in adult patients one year after COVID-19: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2022;74:1191-1198.

Su Y, Yuan D, Chen DG, et al. Multiple early factors anticipate post-acute COVID-19 sequelae. Cell. 2022;185:881-895.

Takashita E, Kinoshita N, Yamayoshi S, et al. Efficacy of antiviral agents against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron subvariant BA.2. NEJM. 2022;386:1475-1477.

The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics. Tixagevimab and cilgavimab (Evusheld) for pre-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19. JAMA. 2022;327:384-385.

Udwadia ZF, Singh P, Barkate H, et al. Efficacy and safety of favipiravir, an oral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor, in mild-to-moderate COVID-19: A randomized, comparative, open-label, multicenter, phase 3 clinical trial. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;103:62-71.

UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 vaccine surveillance report: week 5. assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1052353/Vaccine_surveillance_report_-_week_5.pdf. Accessed May 31, 2022.

UK Health Security Agency. The effectiveness of vaccination against long COVID: A rapid evidence briefing. ukhsa.koha-ptfs.co.uk/cgi-bin/koha/opac-retrieve-file.pl?id=fe4f10cd3cd509fe045ad4f72ae0dfff. Accessed May 31, 2022.

US Food and Drug Administration. Fact sheet for healthcare providers: emergency use authorization for bebtelovimab. www.fda.gov/media/156152/download. Accessed May 31, 2022.

US Food and Drug Administration. Fact sheet for healthcare providers: emergency use authorization for molnupiravir. fda.gov/media/155054/download. Accessed May 31, 2022.

US Food and Drug Administration. Fact sheet for healthcare providers: emergency use authorization for nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir. fda.gov/media/155050/download. Accessed May 31, 2022.

US Food and Drug Administration. Fact sheet for healthcare providers: emergency use authorization for remdesivir. fda.gov/media/137566/download. Accessed May 31, 2022.

US Food and Drug Administration. Fact sheet for healthcare providers: emergency use authorization for sotrovimab. fda.gov/media/149534/download. Accessed May 31, 2022.

US Food and Drug Administration. Fact sheet for healthcare providers: emergency use authorization for tixagevimab plus cilgavimab. fda.gov/media/154701/download. Accessed May 31, 2022.

US Food and Drug Administration. Why you should not use ivermectin to treat or prevent COVID-19. fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/why-you-should-not-use-ivermectin-treat-or-prevent-covid-19. Accessed May 31, 2022.

Vermillion MS, Murakami E, Ma B, et al. Inhaled remdesivir reduces viral burden in a nonhuman primate model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sci Transl Med. 2022;[Epub ahead of print].

Wang L, Berger NA, Kaelber DC, et al. Comparison of outcomes from COVID infection in pediatric and adult patients before and after the emergence of Omicron. medRxiv. 2022;[Preprint]. Note: This study has not been peer reviewed.

World Health Organization. Interim recommendations for use of the ChAdOx1-S [recombinant] vaccine against COVID-19 (AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine AZD1222 Vaxzevria, SII COVISHIELD). who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1. Accessed May 31, 2022.

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