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Unprotected sexual intercourse is the most common mode for transmission of HIV and other STDs. The presence of an STD in individuals with HIV can facilitate HIV transmission by increasing genital shedding of HIV.[80,81] Therefore, detection and treatment of STDs are an important part of an HIV prevention strategy.
Women should be counseled routinely to use barrier contraceptive methods to prevent acquisition of an STD, even if other contraceptive methods are already in use. Routine screening for STDs should occur in sexually active women and should be performed more often in the following situations:
Women should be evaluated for the following STDs:
Women who test positive for gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas, or syphilis should be counseled regarding safe sexual practices and the use of barrier contraception. Gonorrhea, chlamydia, chancroid, and syphilis are reportable STDs according to the CDC guidelines. The guidelines for reporting of specific STDs vary by state.