Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, et al. The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2018;67:328-357.
Than NN, Newsome PN. A concise review of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Atherosclerosis. 2015;239:192-202.
Clark JM, Brancati FL, Diehl AME. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the most common cause of abnormal liver enzymes in the US population. Program and abstracts of the 2001 Digestive Disease Week and the 102nd Annual Meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association; May 20-23, 2001; Atlanta, GA. Abstract 344.
Wong RJ, Aguilar M, Cheung R, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the second leading etiology of liver disease among adults awaiting liver transplantation in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2015;148:547-555.
Pais R, Barritt AS, Calmus Y, et al. NAFLD and liver transplantation: current burden and expected challenges. J Hepatol. 2016;65:1245-1257.
Diehl AM, Day C. Cause, pathogenesis, and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:2063-2072.
Townsend SA, Newsome PN. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in 2016. Br Med Bull. 2016;119:143-156.
Younossi Z, Anstee QM, Marietti M, et al. Global burden of NAFLD and NASH: trends, predictions, risk factors and prevention. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;15:11-20.
Mahady SE, George J. Predicting the future burden of NAFLD and NASH. J Hepatol. 2018;69:774-775.
Ratziu V, Charlotte F, Heurtier A, et al. Sampling variability of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:1898-1906.
Younossi ZM, Koenig AB, Abdelatif D, et al. Global epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-meta-analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence and outcomes. Hepatology. 2016;64:73-84.
Younes R, Bugianesi E. NASH in lean individuals. Semin Liv Dis. 2019;39:86-95.
Browning JD, Szczepaniak LS, Dobbins R, et al. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity. Hepatology. 2004;40:1387-1395.
Rich NE, Oji S, Mufti AR, et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence, severity, and outcomes in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;16:198-210.
Eslam M, Valenti L, Romeo S. Genetics and epigenetics of NAFLD and NASH: clinical impact. J Hepatol. 2018;68:268-279.
Romeo S, Kozlitina J, Xing C, et al. Genetic variation in PNPLA3 confers susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1461-1465.
Caballería L, Pera G, Auladell MA, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an adult population in Spain. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:24-32.
Ballestri S, Nascimbeni F, Baldelli E, et al. NAFLD as a sexual dimorphic disease: role of gender and reproductive status in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and inherent cardiovascular risk. Adv Ther. 2017;34:1291-1326.
Younossi Z, Tacke F, Arrese M, et al. Global perspectives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology. 2019;69:2672-2682.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fakhouri TH, et al. Prevalence of obesity among youths by household income and education level of head of household - United States 2011-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67:186-189.
Wu KT, Kuo PL, Su SB, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease severity is associated with the ratios of total cholesterol and triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10:420-425.
Hsu WC, Araneta MR, Kanaya AM, et al. BMI cut points to identify at-risk Asian Americans for T2DM screening. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:150-158.
Liu YL, Patman GL, Leathart JB, et al. Carriage of the PNPLA3 rs738409 C >G polymorphism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2014;61:75-81.
Sookoian S, Pirola CJ. Meta-analysis of the influence of I148M variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) on the susceptibility and histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2011;53:1883-1894.
Liu YL, Reeves HL, Burt AD, et al. TM6SF2 rs58542926 influences hepatic fibrosis progression in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4309.
Miele L, Beale G, Patman G, et al. The Kruppel-like factor 6 genotype is associated with fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:282-291.
Abul-Husn NS, Cheng X, Li AH, et al. A protein-truncating HSD17B13 variant and protection from chronic liver disease. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:1096-1106.
Basaranoglu M, Neuschwander-Tetri BA. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: clinical features and pathogenesis. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2006;2:282-291.
Stengel JZ, Harrison SA. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2006;2:440-449.
European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO). EASL-EASD-EASO clinical practice guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol. 2016;64:1388-1402.
Singh S, Allen AM, Wang Z, et al. Fibrosis progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver vs nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of paired-biopsy studies. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13:643-654.
Angulo P, Kleiner DE, Dam-Larsen S, et al. Liver fibrosis, but no other histologic features, is associated with long-term outcomes of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2015;149:389-397.
Ekstedt M, Franzen LE, Mathiesen UL, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with NAFLD and elevated liver enzymes. Hepatology. 2006;44:865-873.
Ekstedt M, Hagstrom H, Nasr P, et al. Fibrosis stage is the strongest predictor for disease-specific mortality in NAFLD after up to 33 years of follow-up. Hepatology. 2015;61:1547-1554.
Xia MF, Yan HM, He WY, et al. Standardized ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate to quantify liver fat content: an improvement method. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:444.
Eddowes PJ, Sasso M, Allison M, et al. Accuracy of FibroScan controlled attenuation parameter and liver stiffness measurement in assessing steatosis and fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2019;156:1717-1730.
Kleiner DE, Brunt EM, Van NM, et al. Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2005;41:1313-1321.
Bedossa P, Poitou C, Veyrie N, et al. Histopathological algorithm and scoring system for evaluation of liver lesions in morbidly obese patients. Hepatology. 2012;56:1751-1759.
Kleiner DE, Makhlouf HR. Histology of NAFLD and NASH in adults and children. Clin Liver Dis. 2016;20:293.
Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G, et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology. 2007;45:846-854.
Vallet-Pichard A, Mallet V, Nalpas B, et al. FIB-4: an inexpensive and accurate marker of fibrosis in HCV infection. comparison with liver biopsy and fibrotest. Hepatology. 2007;46:32-36.
Kaswala DH, Lai M, Afdhal NH. Fibrosis assessment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2016. Dig Dis Sci. 2016;61:1356-1364.
McPherson S, Hardy T, Dufour JF, et al. Age as a confounding factor for the accurate non-invasive diagnosis of advanced NAFLD fibrosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112:740-751.
Fernandes FF, Ferraz ML, Andrade LE, et al. Enhanced liver fibrosis panel as a predictor of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2015;49:235-241.
D’Onofrio M, Crosara S, DeRobertis R, et al. Acoustic radiation force impulse of the liver. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:4841-4849.
Parkes J, Guha IN, Roderick P, et al. Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test accurately identifies liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:23-31.
Fagan KJ, Pretorius CJ, Horsfall LU, et al. ELF score ≥9.8 indicates advanced hepatic fibrosis and is influenced by age, steatosis and histological activity. Liver Int. 2015;35:1673-1681.
Vilar-Gomez E, Martinez-Perez Y, Calzadilla-Bertot L, et al. Weight loss through lifestyle modification significantly reduces features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2015;149:367-378.
Mann T, Tomiyama AJ, Westling E, et al. Medicare’s search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer. Am Psychol. 2007;62:220-233.
Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol. Circulation. 2019;139:e1082-e1143.
Daniel MJ. Lipid management in patients with T2DM. Am Health Drug Benefits. 2011;4:312-322.
Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2018;138:e426-e483.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(suppl 1).
Armstrong MJ, Gaunt P, Aithal GP, et al. Liraglutide safety and efficacy in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (LEAN): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 study. Lancet. 2016;387:679-690.
Chang SH, Stoll CR, Song J, et al. The effectiveness and risks of bariatric surgery: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis, 2003-2012. JAMA Surg. 2014;149:275-287.
Mummadi RR, Kasturi KS, Chennareddygari S, et al. Effect of bariatric surgery on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:1396-1402.
Mosko JD, Nguyen GC. Increased perioperative mortality following bariatric surgery among patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:897-901.
Sanyal AJ, Chalasani N, Kowdley KV, et al. Pioglitazone, vitamin E, or placebo for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1675-1685.
Bril F, Kalavalapalli S, Clark VC, et al. Response to pioglitazone in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with vs without type 2 diabetes. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;16:558-566.
Beltowski J, Rachanczyk J, Wlodarczyk N. Thiazolidinedione-induced fluid retention: recent insights into the molecular mechanisms. PPAR Res. 2013;2013:628628.
Filipova E, Uzunova K, Kalinov K, et al. Pioglitazone and the risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Ther. 2017;8:705-726.
Lavine JE, Schwimmer JB, Van Natta ML, et al. Effect of vitamin E or metformin for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: the TONIC randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011;305:1659-1668.
Abner EL, Schmitt FA, Mendiondo MS, et al. Vitamin E and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Curr Aging Sci. 2011;4:158-170.
Zhang Y, Jackson JP, St Claire RL 3rd, et al. Obeticholic acid, a selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, regulates bile acid homeostasis in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2017;5.
Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Loomba R, Sanyal AJ, et al. Farnesoid X nuclear receptor ligand obeticholic acid for non-cirrhotic, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (FLINT): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;385:956-965.
Younossi Z, Ratziu V, Loomba R, et al. Positive results from REGENERATE: a phase 3 international, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating obeticholic acid treatment for NASH. Program and abstracts of the 2019 International Liver Congress; April 10-14, 2019; Vienna, Austria. Abstract GS-06.
Ratziu V, Harrison SA, Francque S, et al. Elafibranor, an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and -δ, induces resolution of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis without fibrosis worsening. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:1147-1159.
ClinicalTrials.gov. Phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of elafibranor versus placebo in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (RESOLVE-IT). Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02704403. Accessed August 19, 2019.
Kim CW, Addy C, Kusunoki J, et al. Acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibition reduces hepatic steatosis but elevates plasma triglycerides in mice and humans: a bedside to bench investigation. Cell Metab. 2017;26:394-406.
Loomba R, Kayali Z, Noureddin M, et al. GS-0976 reduces hepatic steatosis and fibrosis markers in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2018;155:1463-1473.
Loomba R, Lawitz E, Mantry PS, et al. The ASK1 inhibitor selonsertib in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a randomized, phase 2 trial. Hepatology. 2018;67:549-559.
ClinicalTrials.gov. Safety and efficacy of selonsertib in adults with compensated cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (STELLAR 4). Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03053063. Accessed August 19, 2019.