Welcome to the CCO Site

Thank you for your interest in CCO content. As a guest, please complete the following information fields. These data help ensure our continued delivery of impactful education. 

Become a member (or login)? Member benefits include accreditation certificates, downloadable slides, and decision support tools.


Hepatitis C in Women: Updated Guidance on Screening and Management

Tatyana Kushner, MD, MSCE
Released: December 1, 2020
Back Next


  1. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Hepatitis Surveillance-United States. 2018. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/statistics/2018surveillance/index.htm. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  2. Suryaprasad AG, White JZ, Xu F, et al. Emerging epidemic of hepatitis C virus infections among young nonurban persons who inject drugs in the United States, 2006-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:1411-1419.
  3. Zibbell JE, Iqbal K, Patel RC, et al. Increases in hepatitis C virus infection related to injection drug use among persons aged ≤30 years-Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, 2006-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:453-458.
  4. Esmaeili A, Mirzazadeh A, Carter GM, et al. Higher incidence of HCV in females compared to males who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Viral Hepat. 2017;24:117-127.
  5. Ly KN, Jiles RB, Teshale EH, et al. Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Reproductive-Aged Women and Children in the United States, 2006 to 2014. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166:775-782.
  6. Evans JL, Hahn JA, Page-Shafer K, et al. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study). J Urban Health. 2003;80:137-146. 
  7. Rossi RM, Wolfe C, Brokamp R, et al. Reported prevalence of maternal hepatitis C virus infection in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;135:387-395.
  8. El-Kamary SS, Serwint JR, Joffe A, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in urban children. J Pediatr. 2003;143:54-59. 
  9. AASLD/IDSA. HCV Guidance: Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C. Available at: https://www.hcvguidelines.org. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  10. Owens DK, Davidson KW, Krist AH, et al. Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adolescents and adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2020;323:970-975. 
  11. Schillie S, Wester C, Osborne M, et al. CDC recommendations for hepatitis C screening among adults-United States, 2020. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2020;69:1-17.
  12. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection. April 2020. Available at: https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/practice-advisory/articles/2020/04/screening-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  13. Selvapatt N, Ward T, Bailey H, et al. Is antenatal screening for hepatitis C virus cost-effective? A decade's experience at a London centre. J Hepatol. 2015;63:797-804.
  14. Tasillo A, Eftekhari Yazdi G, et al. Short-Term effects and long-term cost-effectiveness of universal hepatitis C testing in prenatal care. Obstet Gynecol. 2019;133:289-300. 
  15. Chaillon A, Rand EB, Reau N, et al. Cost-effectiveness of universal hepatitis C virus screening of pregnant women in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;69:1888-1895.
  16. AASLD. HCV in pregnancy. Available at: https://www.hcvguidelines.org/unique-populations/pregnancy. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  17. Marschall HU, Wikström Shemer E, Ludvigsson JF, et al. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and associated hepatobiliary disease: a population-based cohort study. Hepatology. 2013;58:1385-1391. 
  18. Wijarnpreecha K, Thongprayoon C, Sanguankeo A, et al. Hepatitis C infection and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2017;41:39-45.
  19. Huang QT, Huang Q, Zhong M, et al. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with increased risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Viral Hepat. 2015;22:1033-1042. 
  20. Huang QT, Hang LL, Zhong M, et al. Maternal HCV infection is associated with intrauterine fetal growth disturbance: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95:e4777.
  21. Stokkeland K, Ludvigsson JF, Hultcrantz R, et al. Pregnancy outcome in more than 5000 births to women with viral hepatitis: a population-based cohort study in Sweden. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017;32:617-625.
  22. ClinicalTrials.gov. An observational study of hepatitis C virus in pregnancy (HCV). Available at: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01959321. Accessed November 15, 2020.
  23. Prasad M, Saade GR, Sandoval G, et al. Hepatitis C virus antibody screening in a cohort of pregnant women: identifying seroprevalence and risk factors. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;135:778-788.
  24. AASLD. Reproductive Health and Liver Disease: Practice guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2020;[Epub ahead of print].
  25. Terrault NA, Lok AS, McMahon BJ, et al. Update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 hepatitis B guidance. Hepatology. 2018;67:1560-1599.
  26. Benova L, Mohamoud YA, Calvert C, et al. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:765-773. 
  27. Cottrell EB, Chou R, Wasson N, et al. Reducing risk for mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:109-113. 
  28. Hughes BL, Page CM, Kuller JA. Hepatitis C in pregnancy: screening, treatment, and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217:B2-B12. 
  29. Murray KF, Horslen S. Diseases of the Liver in Children. Evaluation and Management. Switzerland: Springer Nature; 2014.
  30. Nydegger A, Srivastava A, Wake M, et al. Health-related quality of life in children with hepatitis C acquired in the first year of life. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;23:226-230.
  31. Modin L, Arshad A, Wilkes B, et al. Epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis C virus infection among children and young people. J Hepatol. 2019;70:371-378. 
  32. Kuncio DE, Newbern EC, Johnson CC, et al. Failure to test and identify perinatally infected children born to hepatitis C virus-infected women. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:980-985. 
  33. Chappell CA, Scarsi KK, Kirby BJ, et al. Ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir in pregnant women with hepatitis C virus infection: a phase 1 pharmacokinetic study. Lancet Microbe. 2020;1:e200-e208. 
Back Next

Leaving the CCO site

You are now leaving the CCO site. The new destination site may have different terms of use and privacy policy.


Cookie Settings